Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is a part of Platelet indices and done in hemogram or CBC blood test.
Why test for Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) at Symbion VIP Diagnostics, Ahmedabad ?
Mean platelet blood volume is a blood test that measures the average number of platelets in the blood. Platelets help the blood heal wounds and prevent excessive bleeding. High or low platelet levels can be a sign of a severe condition.
The mean platelet volume (MPV) blood test is typically part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A CBC reveals important information about the number of different blood cells in the body.
Causes of a High Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
A high MPV is usually a sign that there are more young platelets circulating in your bloodstream. If you have had a procedure such as major surgery, your body is using up platelets to repair the cuts to the blood vessels. In response, your bone marrow releases more of the young, larger platelets, and your MPV rises.
Evaluating a high MPV is most helpful in determining the cause of a low platelet count, and the most common cause is "destruction," or the platelets being destroyed in some way, such as by antibodies you produce (see ITP below).
A high MPV with a high platelet count, in contrast, is often due to primary or essential thrombocytosis (a condition in which the body produces too many platelets, often due to a genetic mutation), or cancer.
A high MPV with a normal platelet count suggests conditions such as hyperthyroidism, or chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Conditions that may cause an elevated MPV include :
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): ITP is a condition in which the immune system destroys platelets. The condition idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura has a long name, but looking at each of the terms in ITP makes this easier to understand. Idiopathic is a term used to describe a condition of unknown cause. It is doctor lingo for "we don't have a clue" why it occurs. The root word "thrombo" refers to clot (the function of platelets) and "penia" refers to deficiency, so thrombocytopenia refers to a deficiency of platelets. Purpura is the medical term for a bruise, usually a fairly large bruise. (The term petechiae refers to small red marks on the skin (small bruises) which don't blanch when you press on them.)
- Blood cancers such as leukemia.
- Non-alcoholic liver disease.
- Genetic abnormalities in platelets.
- Bernard-Soulier Disease (giant platelet syndrome).
- Bone marrow stimulating drugs, such as erythropoietin or thrombopoietin.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Respiratory Diseases.
- Heart attack (see below).
- Pre-eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy) and HELLP syndrome.
- Artificial heart valves.
- Causes of Low Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
- Possible causes of a low MPV can also vary depending on the platelet count. A low MPV with a low platelet count can point towards disorders affecting the bone marrow that slow down or decrease the production of platelets, such as a condition called aplastic anemia. A low MPV with a high platelet count often signifies an infection, inflammation, or cancer. A low MPV with a normal platelet count is common with chronic kidney failure.
Possible causes of a low MPV include:
- Bone marrow failure (older platelets are smaller, so the MPV is low if the bone marrow isn't producing as many).
- Splenomegaly (an enlargement of the spleen). With hypersplenism, platelets are often "sequestered" in the spleen.
- Chronic kidney failure
- Medications that suppress platelet formation (such as chemotherapy drugs).
- Iron deficiency anemia.
The laboratory test results are NOT to be interpreted as results of a "stand-alone" test. The test results have to be interpreted after correlating with suitable clinical findings and additional supplemental tests/information. Your healthcare providers will explain the meaning of your tests results, based on the overall clinical scenario. For further information about these lab tests contact Symbion VIP Diagnostics pathology lab Ahmedabad at 09429410291